I wrote "An Information Industry Survival Guide" for Information Today
1998, the future looked bright despite what the editor termed "a number
of interesting developments in the information industry." Those interesting
developments were "the closing of EBSCO Document Services; the consolidation
of Gale Research, IAC, and Primary Source Media into the Gale Group; and
The Dialog Corporation's move of its headquarters from California to North
Carolina."1 Those were real storm
clouds on the horizon. Since then the economy has slowed and left us with
a new buzzword "dot-gone" to describe the evaporation of thousands
of Internet ventures.
In 1998, my brief
was to compile as many useful Web sites for industry career and job information
as I could. This time I want to shift the focus to the strategies involved.
Rather than compile one more "all you can eat" set of links to add to the
other sets of links out there (many of them quite excellent), let me outline
an effective online job search strategy you can adapt to your own career
focus and industry target. I want to show information professionals how
to think about searching for work. I'll cover the worst way to find
a job, the easiest way to find a job, and then map out "The Invisible Job
Market for Information Professionals." As information professionals, Searcher
readers have an unfair advantage in the job market you know how to focus,
find, and put information to use. If you think it's wrong to use this unfair
advantage to find a better job, please stop reading now.
Why Most Job Searches Fail
I have worked
with job seekers for 15 years, first as a public library business librarian,
later as a job search trainer for libraries and career programs. Since
1996, I've helped millions of online visitors (over 20,000 a day) at JobStar:
California Job Search Guide [http://jobstar.org].
JobStar began with federal grants from California libraries and continues
with advertising revenue from CareerJournal, the online job site of the
Street Journal. If you add the 10 or so daily e-mails I receive as
Electra, the Electronic Librarian, asking for individual assistance, I've
answered 25,000 since 1996. You'll see that I've thought long and hard
about where most job searches get bogged down or fail.
When it comes to
unique job search activities like writing a resume or negotiating salary,
all of us know of our need for information and guidance. But just as most
people think they do a pretty good job searching the Web (because they
never know what they're missing), the average job seeker rarely realizes
how much strategy it takes to look beyond the obvious. The average job
seeker thinks job hunting is just common sense.
Common sense says
that companies hire by running an ad in the newspaper or at a big online
employment site where job seekers congregate. When most people look for
employment online, they picture a finite number of virtual "hiring halls"
and imagine their biggest challenge will be identifying the "best" spots
online. Check the Sunday paper and check some big online sites if there's
no ad for a chemist in my town, then no one in my town is hiring a chemist
Most job searches
fail because the job seeker obeys the dictates of common sense. It's not
until the job seeker runs out of relevant ads, or sends hundreds of electronic
applications into the cybervoid, that anyone suspects a problem. Too often
job seekers conclude that the fault lies in them in their qualifications,
work history, or resume when the real error lies in their conception
of how the job market works.
To make matters
more confusing, the common-sense approach does match exactly how the public
sector hires. When a city or a county agency has a job vacancy, it announces
open positions in public places. No opening listed on the county Web site?
Check back next week. A not insignificant irony is that the local librarian
who may be asked to prescribe information to a stuck or failed job seeker
is herself a public employee and found every job she's ever had following
the path of common sense.
It took me years
to realize that the private sector hires in a very different, seemingly
illogical way. And until I understood how the private sector job-hunt was
organized, I could provide little strategic help to my patrons. If they
asked me the right question, I could answer it. But I couldn't tell them
what the next question should be.
I've found that
steering job seekers to more effective strategies is never as simple as
just mapping the way. Once you leave the safety of the public employment
hubs and the relative comfort of common sense, you'd better have a high
level of information skill. It's as if the best job search strategies required
a working knowledge of calculus or in this case, superior research skill.
But you don't work with job seekers for 15 years without realizing that
seizing the unfair advantage is the best advice of all. As a reader of
magazine, you've got that advantage. Let me show you how to put it to use.
Is Your Database?
"OK," you say,
"I've got the solution for the Neanderthal job-hunt system! Just make every
employer enter job openings in a single database set it up properly and
we'll have one-stop shopping." Monster.com, one of the three commercial
Internet success stories (along with Amazon.com and eBay), attempts to
do just that. Millions of job seekers spend hour after hour posting resumes
and keyword searching the database because Monster.com appears to validate
the common-sense approach.
Spend some time
looking at the numbers and you'll see that what Monster.com really does
best is attract job seekers (41 million unique visitors in January 2002)
and store their resumes (15 million). It does not excel at connecting a
wide range of applicants with the best job in their community. First, there's
the huge disparity between the number of job seekers (41 million per month),
client/employers (95,000), and jobs (1 million). That's roughly one job
for every 41 job seekers, 15 resumes in the resume bank for every job listing,
and 400 job seekers for every employer3.Those
aren't great odds for the candidates.
Then there's the
broad scope of the database: The listings at the local level of this global
database are similar to the display ads in your Sunday newspaper employment
classifieds. It's nice to have a source like this and I will show you
how to put it to creative use in your job search but it hasn't replaced
the Neanderthal job-hunting system on the applicant side. It only feeds
the job seeker's illusion that all you need is a whole lot of job ads in
Should you then
avoid these sites completely? No. Use the massive dimensions of sites like
Monster.com to your advantage. Post your resume, set up an account, and
get automatic notification. Use the rich resources on job search and salary.
Explore the job postings and spot new employers, setting, job titles. But
then you must put all this information to use in your own job search campaign,
which will involve your own targeting, networking, and researching.
is doing so well! The employers must be happy, right?" Certainly the site's
business model depends on employer satisfaction: Employers must pay to
post jobs or search the resume database. But few employers ever find employment
mass marketing effective online's special appeal is the cost ($305 to
post a single job on Monster.com for 60 days vs. $1,000 a day for an ad
in a major newspaper). According to a recent study of hiring behavior by
six large employers, fewer than one in 100 of their new hires is made at
large job boards like Monster.com. The percentage of hires made through
Monster.com's largest competitors (HotJobs, CareerBuilder, and Headhunter.net)
range from four in 1,000 to two in 1,0006.
Millions of available
local jobs are never advertised to a mass market because job ads remain
the employer's least preferred search method. Many of the best jobs are
filled long before the employer considers placing a classified ad or signing
up for Monster.com7. For those employers
who make use of a mass market site like Monster.com, the final insult is
the noise in the database. I call this "the neurosurgeon factor." If I
can apply for a job as a neurosurgeon, then so can my mother and my nephew,
a clerk at WalMart. That's one seriously dirty database. The poor employer
has now paid to swim in a sea of unqualified candidates from Boston to
Bahrain, all of them eagerly cutting and pasting electronic resumes 24/7.
Central job sites
like Monster.com don't give employers exactly what they really want quick
and easy referral of three stellar local candidates but the cost is right.
(By the way, companies already know how to get those three candidates:
work through a recruiter. They also know that standard recruiting fees
are generally about 30 percent of the candidate's first-year salary.)
In tight job markets,
employers use sites like Monster to get the word out about their companies
and to grow their pools of potential applicants. Employers can also benefit
from the marketing of their corporate brand (one of the same reasons large
employers do buy display ads in newspaper classifieds) to let candidates
know that these companies are large and active and worth considering. When
the economy is slow and companies are not growing as fast or competing
for candidates, some employers will think long-term development of their
"brand," while others find less value in tapping into large numbers of
Do Parallel Lines Meet in
You need excellent
information skills to succeed in the job market because in order to find
that one job the perfect one for you you have to search the way the
employer wants you to search...not where you're most comfortable. Richard
Bolles, author of What Color Is Your Parachute?, calls this "Our
Neanderthal Job-Hunting System":
The job hunt is
still basically done in the same way as it was done 30 years ago, despite
all of the technological changes. For Parachute, I created a diagram
called "Our Neanderthal Job-Hunting System." It's a large pyramid, segmented
by different job-hunting techniques. Employers start at the bottom of that
pyramid. They try to fill vacancies by looking internally and hiring from
within. Only after that do they go up the pyramid to other methods, such
as contacts, employment agencies, unsolicited resumes, and ads. But the
job hunter takes exactly the opposite direction exactly the opposite!
The job hunter starts by mailing resumes and looking through ads, and only
then moves down the pyramid to the strategies that employers prefer. The
job hunt hasn't changed one whit in 30 years. It's just as Neanderthal
today as it was then2.
Every time I see
Bolles' pyramid at right, I remember the most mind-altering concept I encountered
in library school. "The Principle of Least Effort" posits that we tend
to choose the most convenient path over the most effective path. Job seekers
and employers fail to connect because the convenient path for one is incompatible
with the convenient path of the other. An optimist would observe that each
party adopts the most efficient strategy based on familiar resources and
skills. A pessimist would say that each party attempts to reduce the amount
of work and attention devoted to tasks that the job candidates find uncomfortable
and the employers find urgent.
What's easy and
natural for the employer using resources inside the company (employees,
employee recommendations, former contractors) is the opposite of what
is easy and natural for the potential employee (checking the newspaper,
finding job ads, and mass mailing resumes). Parallel lines meeting in infinity.
As a librarian, I find this such a fascinating information problem that
I've spent 15 years staring it in the face. I realize that my clients don't
share my fascination. When you're out of work, what you mainly feel is
frustration. You don't want to study it; you just want it to be over.
How Does Anyone Ever Find
"So, if the job-hunt
system is as bad as all that, then how does anyone ever find a job?" Even
in the worst of times, millions of Americans find new jobs without even
breaking a sweat. If you're properly positioned, sooner or later the perfect
job walks right up to you. A friend forwards a juicy job lead or mentions
that Sheila is retiring at XYZ so the department head position is up for
grabs. Your neighbor tells you his law firm wants to hire a skilled LexisNexis
searcher. There's even a name for this easy method: "the passive job search."
You don't pound the pavement, but you gladly jump when a better job comes
Read any career
guide and you will be admonished to network, network, network. This means
to "properly position" yourself so that job opportunities will find you.
In our Neanderthal job system, the employer's first search strategy is
to look internally or to ask current employees for candidate recommendations.
This networking effort is initiated on the employer-side. If you're the
job seeker, your goal is to be part of the right employer's network.
is handing out business cards to strangers or asking people on the bus
to hire you. Good networking is nothing more than making a mutual connection
with those around you: learning about them and having them learn about
you. Though your goal is to connect with the employer's network, that doesn't
mean you focus only on those people who can obviously help you. I've had
wonderful clients referred to me by my dry cleaner and by the fellow who
runs the deli across the street. I like to chat. Other people love to chat
too. So when one of his customers mentions that she needs a Web site, my
dry cleaner thinks of me. "Leave me your card and I'll pass it along to
Mary-Ellen. Nice lady, good customer too." In my case, these contacts are
potential clients, but if I were looking for a job, they'd be potential
If you're not in
a hurry or out of work, this is the easiest way to find a better job. In
fact, it's how most people find new jobs...good times and bad.
The Invisible Job Market How
to Work It
the worst way to find a job (focus solely on high-traffic job bank sites)
and the easiest way to find a job (hold still, your network will bring
it to you). What's left is something the career world calls "The Hidden
Job Market" and defines as all those job opportunities never advertised
because the employer prefers other recruiting strategies, as outlined in
Before the Internet
came along I used to run support groups for unemployed executives facing
challenging job searches. The classic Hidden Job Market search was made
up of equal parts networking and "in your face" marketing. We used research
to inform and direct the networking, but when it came to making those "cold"
sales calls with decision makers, success hinged on the candidate's sales
skills and ability to tolerate rejection. Even when done properly, the
Hidden Job Market search was a brutal, ego-bruising experience. Candidates
endured it because it was often the only way to find an equivalent new
The Internet has
so transformed the Hidden Job Market until I think it deserves a new name
the "Invisible Job Market." Just as the invisible Web is made up of information
never registered by popular search engines, so the invisible job market
is made up of thousands of job listings and job leads that never make it
to the online employment shopping malls. By focusing on this segment of
the advertised job market, you no longer need the skin of a rhino and the
sales ability of a car salesman. Nor will you be one of a thousand applicants
or just another resume in a million resume databank.
The Invisible Job
Market exists because the Internet makes it easy for the employer to place
a job ad on the company Web site or post a position on an industry- or
profession-specific site. Typically, once the hiring manager realizes that
an in-house candidate can't be found, the following process starts up:
prepare a formal job requisition, post the position on the corporate Web
site, enlist HR or a search firm to undertake other recruiting efforts.
Current employees are often asked to assist in the search and they help
by networking and by posting the job listing on professional mailing lists,
for example a listserv for Oracle users or technical service librarians.
will target their job outreach efforts to appropriate settings or disciplines
to cut down the noise in those large job banks. Looking for a mechanical
engineer? List job openings on sites visited by mechanical engineers (and
not visited by my mother or nephew). Is the job in Los Angeles? List it
with the L.A. chapter of a mechanical engineering association. It's easy
for employers to accrue expertise when hiring the same kinds of candidates
on a routine basis. Hospitals know how to recruit nurses; academic libraries
know how to recruit academic librarians. "Traditional" jobs in the information
industry involve settings in which the employer knows exactly where to
look for candidates with our information skills because they hire this
type of candidate on a regular basis.
especially when looking for a candidate for a new or specialized position,
simply don't know where to look. When the position requirements lie outside
the employer's usual realm of expertise, employers tend to target their
recruiting efforts toward industry sites. An employer may want a knowledge
manager or an indexer, but if their real business is making shoes, they
don't know where knowledge managers or indexers "live" on the Web. So they
list the job on a site they do know a footwear industry portal. When
you look for a "nontraditional library job," you can't assume that the
employer knows exactly who you are or where to find you. Instead you must
focus on their information universe: Where would they post such
a position if they had no idea of where to look for someone with your skills?
Focus, Focus, Focus
Now you see why
you need great search skills to navigate these waters. First, you absolutely
must focus on a job title, industry, and location. Your search statement
should be quite narrow: "Information manager for a large shoe manufacturer
in Los Angeles." Then you'll need to research variant job titles and learn
more about specific sub-industries to find out what's realistic. Finally,
you assemble a prospect list of potential local employers and research
each in depth. At that point, you will either have discovered several fabulous
current job listings or you'll have all the information you need
to contact the employer and market your relevant skills and experience.
As you map out
your job target, stop at each step to locate appropriate national and local
associations. Employers who look beyond networking and posting the position
on the company Web site will next look to trade and professional
associations in their effort to target the best candidate pool.
Don't forget to
locate and subscribe to relevant mailing lists for your job target and
setting. If multiple listserv subscriptions will swell your mailbox to
unacceptable proportions, sign up for the DIGEST feature.
You can also form
an informal job search club: Ask colleagues with slightly different job
targets or locations to share relevant postings with the other members.
OK, Explore and Then
Trust me, I know
what you're thinking. "Sure, sure, now I have an idea of how to get to
where I want to go. But how do I know where that is? Maybe there are some
great jobs or settings I've never thought of." While losing a job can be
traumatic, it's also a time when we pause to shift gears and to dream of
new career directions. I often work with groups of job seekers struggling
to focus and find myself recalling that old movie Harvey, the one
about the invisible rabbit (or as Jimmy Stewart's Elwood P. Dowd calls
him, "pooka"). When someone asks Elwood, "May I help you with something?"
his invariable response is, "What did you have in mind?"
Because my focus
as a librarian and researcher is the job search rather than the career
development process, I feel strongly that the two activities should remain
separate. Career development addresses issues such as job fit, personal
and career values, preferred styles of working, and long-range life goals.
In my experience, trying to work on all those issues AND look for work
at the same time rarely results in a good outcome on either score.
Why? First, because
figuring out what you have in mind can really slow down a job search! You'd
be amazed by how many accounting managers I've met who, after 25 years
on the job, decide that they want to be a golf pro or a motivational speaker.
A few will make the transition, but none quickly. Most go in circles for
a year or so until they decide to get another accounting job ASAP because
they've run out of money. Because their job search is now so rushed, they
have to take the first thing that comes along, often at a lower salary
since their predicament has left them with little leverage in salary negotiations.
How can you avoid
this "transition trap"? Simple. Start working on your direction, possibilities,
and focus while you're still employed. Think about your career, your goals,
your skills, and your interests while you're relatively comfortable and
paying the rent. Start with the Career Guides in the Toolkit and begin
thinking about what appeals to you.
Though I am not
a career counselor, I'll share my favorite home remedy with you. Keep a
career journal and jot down job titles, settings, and directions that excite
you. Spend some time searching the Web for information and connections
to people already working in that area. Look for patterns and directions
that might seem crazy except the very thought of them makes you feel
like a million bucks. I get some of my best ideas from reading obituaries.
One of my career inspirations is Lillian Shedd McMurray, a woman who stumbled
on a stack of old blues records in the attic of her husband's furniture
store in 1949 and who went on to open a record department in the store,
then a recording studio, and, finally, became a producer for her own gospel
and blues record label4. Not so different
really from a librarian deciding to create a career information Web site
supported by the Wall Street Journal.
Information Professionals' Career
of Ask the Headhunter [http://www.asktheheadhunter.com/halibrary.htm]
has coined the term "the Library Vacation"5
to describe his approach to career planning: Take off 3 days (or a week)
and spend it at the library thinking about and researching your new direction.
Start thinking about new directions and settings while you're already employed
and possibly already in the library. Trust me, it's more fun this
Professional's Guide to Career Development Online
Sarah L. Nesbeitt and Rachel Singer Gordon. Information Today: Medford,
NJ, 2002. ISBN 1-57387-124-9. $29.50 pap. 401 pages. Index.
Packed with ideas,
resources, and strategies for career planning and the job search for the
new librarian as well as established professionals. Sections include online
networking and current awareness; professional associations and conferences;
professional and continuing education (including distance learning); electronic
resumes, online job search, and researching employers. The links in each
chapter of the book are updated and available online: http://www.lisjobs.com/careerdev/index.htm.
Picks for Those "What Do I Want to Do When I Grow Up" Issues
Is Your Parachute? A Practical Manual for Job-Hunters and Career-Changers.
N. Bolles. Ten Speed Press: Berkeley, CA, 2002. ISBN 1-58008-342-0. $24.95.
411 pages. Index.
If you haven't
looked at this since you were in college, it's time to look again. Updated
annually, Parachute incorporates "on the ground" as well as online resources
and approaches. Appendix A, "The Flower Exercise: A Picture of the Job
of Your Dreams," has helped millions of people to focus on their dream
job. It takes a weekend to complete I recommend you start now. See also
Bolles' Web site: http://jobhuntersbible.com.
I Could Do
Anything If I Only Knew What It Was: How to Discover What You Really Want
and How to Get It.
Sher. Dell Trade: New York, NY, 1994. ISBN 0-440-50500-3. $11.95 pap. 322
career counselor Sher discusses all those resistances and fears that keep
us from focusing on our own life goals and moving our careers in new directions.
While I find this book extraordinarily useful in mapping out practical
steps, it might also inspire you to find a great career counselor and work
one on one. Sher's Web site is http://barbarasher.com.
Own North Star: Claiming the Life You Were Meant to Live. Martha
Beck. Three Rivers Press: New York, NY, 2001. ISBN 0-8129-3218-8. $14.95
pap. 380 pages. Index.
Beck goes a bit
"deeper" than Sher, incorporating depth psychology, Zen, and a blend of
New Age and Organizational Development theory into many exercises, questionnaires,
and case studies. Electra loves this kind of stuff...but not when you need
to find a job tomorrow! You can read some selections from Finding Your
Own North Star at http://www.spiritsite.com/writing/marbec/
"Natural Fit"? Figuring Out Your Professional Personality
Ulla de Stricker,
an experienced librarian, walks you through various style, setting, and
value choices that will impact your job target.
Information Experts in the Information Age
Outlook Quarterly, Winter 2000-01.
This caused quite
a stir when it came out last year as a group we're so accustomed to not
being photogenic! But this snapshot of who we are, what we know, and what
we do makes us look exciting, skilled, and desperately needed! Olivia Crosby's
article covers a wide range of settings, salaries, training, resources
and "What else you can do with a library degree?"
Available to Special
Library Association members and non-members: background information on
careers and roles, selling points for special libraries (and special librarians).
for Special Librarians of the 21st Century
SLA's 1996 report
on how special librarians add value to information and organizations.
Kent State University
The new master's
degree program in Information Architecture and Knowledge Management offers
an EXCELLENT career guide for careers in Information Architecture, Knowledge
Management, Information Use. Each section includes a substantial description
of the setting and skills and lists sample job titles, potential employers,
resources, and professional associations.
for Law Librarians
An outline of basic
areas of practice for law librarians: settings, qualifications, resources.
for a School of Information Management and Systems
School of Information
Management and Systems, University of California, Berkeley. December 6,
Scroll down to
the bottom of this long document to "Appendix I Potential Employers and
Functions" for a map of the new work environment for those with information
skills. Yes, the document is almost 10 years old. Call it "visionary"!
of Independent Information Professionals (AIIP) guide to settings and activities:
business and industry, legal research, healthcare, public records, banking
and finance, government and public policy, science and technology, and
in Medical Librarianship
Association guide covers settings, job titles, education and training,
So You Want
to be an Archivist
Overview from the
Society of American Archivists: settings, training, salaries and benefits.
for Records Management Careers
guide includes "An Archivist's View on the MLS Degree" (hint: it helps),
as well as how to get a job, salaries, etc.
Since the dawn
of recorded time, information professionals at conferences and in industry
publications have been discussing, "Who are we and where are we going?"
(The subtext is always, "How far can we move away from the library building
and still be librarians...while getting more respect and better pay?")
The articles below tickled my fancy. Research your own setting indexing,
licensing, children's service, distance learning, whatever and discover
which new roles, new settings, and new job titles beckon.
in the 21st Century
Created by MLS
students at the School of Information Studies, Syracuse University, this
well-organized and informative site will get you thinking about new directions!
The "Career Possibilities" section describes jobs, trends, and resources
for 10 job titles (some conventional, such as academic librarian, and some
less-traditional, such as information broker and information architect).
The "Non-Traditional Jobs for Librarians" section includes a pathfinder
with Web and printed references.
A Librarian by Any Name," Linda W. Braun, Library Journal,
Feb. 1, 2002, pp. 46-49.
Discusses the new
duties and organizational structures emerging from the impact of the Internet
on public and academic libraries.
"How a Librarian
Can Live Nine Lives in a Knowledge-Based Economy," Brunella Longo,
in Libraries, November 2001.
and inspiring account of what a librarian discovered about her own professional
identity as her work took her away from libraries and towards the Web.
Roles of Information Professionals: Excerpts from an Outsell, Inc. Study,"Mary
Corcoran, Lynn Dagar, and Anthea Stratigos. ONLINE, March/April
Outsell, Inc. surveyed
corporate librarians in May 1999 to learn more about roles and responsibilities.
Major roles are: conducting research, evaluating and selecting content,
competitive information analysis, managing content solutions and intranets.
A New Role for Information Professionals," Darlene Fichter, ONLINE,
how librarians can add value to corporate intranets by selecting search
engines, making decisions on content and indexing, developing collections,
adding metadata/cataloging, evaluating performance, and filtering.
Education and Virtual Reference: Where Are We Headed?" Steve Coffman,
in Libraries, April 2001.
The role of libraries
and librarians in supporting distance education and information services
to remote users.
Successful Relationships with IT Professionals: Speaking IT and Staying
K. Heyman, Information Outlook, April 2001.
The value of librarians
in creating and maintaining "sense-making tools" and then collaborating
successfully with corporate IT.
Weird job titles
were one of the best parts of the "New Economy." When I miss those days
I hop over to "Job Titles of the Future," a feature at the FastCompany.com
and check out "Chief Lizard Wrangler," "Curator of the Enlightened Orchard,"
But joking aside,
once you step outside of the public sector, job titles like "Senior Branch
Librarian III" start to disappear. Catalogers find out themselves becoming
Taxonomists or Data Miners. Reference librarians assume the mantles of
User Experience Architects or Electronic Services Specialists. The good
news is, those salaries aren't necessarily pegged to what a librarian earns.
Witness the career counselor who recommended her librarian client reposition
himself as an "information-management specialist," increasing his salary
from $27,000 to $100,000+ at the same time9.
Descriptions in Special Libraries, 3rd edition. Edited by Del Sweeney
with assistance from Karen Zilla. Special Libraries Association: Washington
D.C., 1996. ISBN 0-87111-451-8. $32; SLA members $25. 242 pages.
position descriptions submitted by 23 libraries. The 3rd edition includes
information systems and computer support functions. View the table of contents
Online Job Title
Generator for Library and Information Science Professionals
the Webmaster of this site, collects job titles for our field from library
job ads and librarian contributors. View the whole amazing list or surprise
yourself with the automatic, random title generator. My favorite is "Wired
for Youth Librarian."
School of Library and Information Science
of new graduates, their position titles, and employers. You'll see a mix
of traditional, special, and "new economy" titles.
Who Is Hiring SI Graduates?
University of Michigan,
The School of Information
include Human Factors Specialist at AT&T, Usability Engineer at Amazon.com,
User Experience Architect at Answer Think.
SIMS Graduates Work?
University of California,
Berkeley, School of Information Management and Systems.
Lists past employers
and job titles of recent graduates and includes this most excellent of
sentences: "The average starting salary for the class of 2001, excluding
bonuses, was $73,400 with a maximum salary of $92,000."
Mine the Job Databases for
When looking for
new settings and new titles, the central job sites are the best place to
look! Using the keyword search function creatively, you can unearth all
listed positions requiring an MLS or proficiency in a special type of software
or system (e.g., Java, Inmagic, or LexisNexis). Take time to search for
additional skills or keywords such as "thesaurus," "intranet," "user satisfaction."
In addition to
seeing the position announcement kind of a mini-job description you
can also identify settings and potential employers to add to your job plan.
For more job databases:
Job Banks and Recruiting Sites
and Cover Letters
In my experience,
the type of resume that works best for librarians in traditional settings
(public libraries, academia, large special libraries) does not work as
well in less traditional settings. When your future boss is also a librarian,
you can use library jargon that assumes common understanding of terms such
as "collection development" or "ready reference." If your new boss will
not be a librarian, you must write a resume that translates those activities
into terms that apply to your new setting. In such cases, a functional
resume is almost always mandatory. Use the resources in this section to
review and revise your resume for your job target.
That Work: A How-To-Do-It Manual for Librarians.
Robert R. Newlen.
Neal Schuman Publishers: New York, NY, 1998. ISBN 1-55570-263-5. $45.00
pap. 144 pages. Index. [Also available: Writing Resumes That Work Diskette,
$20: 28 sample resumes in WordPerfect 5.1 format.]
guidance for any librarian looking for a job in a traditional setting (academic,
public, special). Packed with 28 sample resumes, this manual consistently
demonstrates how to create a flexible resume tailored to a job objective
and employer needs.
Idiot's Guide to the Perfect Resume, 2nd ed. Susan Ireland. Alpha
Books: Indianapolis, IN, 2000. ISBN 0-02-863394-6. $14.95 pap. 394 pages.
and examples for job seekers and career changers. At every step Ireland
addresses common problems and solutions (e.g., gaps in work history, lack
of required degree, age discrimination). Includes discussion of electronic
resume formats as well as cover letters and thank you letters. [Editor's
Note: See Sue Ireland's article "A Resume That Works," beginning on
Librarians and Information Professionals
at LISJobs.com. These will give you an idea of a "working" resume in some
library and information settings.
and Interview Skills
Special Libraries Assn.
Ulla de Stricker,
Career Guidance chair, offers 10 tips for librarians writing resumes. Contact
her to learn more about her resume review service for librarians.
Online!"Rachel Singer Gordon and Sarah L. Nesbeitt, Marketing
Library Services, October/November 2001.
How to form an
online network, a professional resume, a professional Web site, and how
to promote them online.
Resume and Cover
Brush up on resume
basics by learning about resume types (including electronic), samples,
and cover letters.
Guide, Susan Ireland's Resume Service
Rich with information
and samples: 70+ resume samples, 50+ cover letters, 20+ thank-you letters.
Susan Ireland is the author of several best-selling resume and cover letter
books. Her video on electronic resume formats provides a lively and straightforward
presentation of the ins and outs of formatting your resume e-mail and job
bank postings (E-Resumes video, Atomic Productions, $29.95).
E-Resumes and Resources
The focus here
is exclusively on electronic resume "how-to's" and related job search issues.
Includes how to handle electronic cover letters.
Guide: Resumes and Cover Letters
Dikel, Electra's librarian sister in arms, provides a metalist to all matters
resume-related, particularly when used in the online job search. She also
includes selected resources on cover letters and references.
The most useful
salary information comes from surveys conducted by professional and trade
associations. While some of these surveys are available online for no charge,
many more are a benefit of association membership and even then available
only for a fee.
Profession-Specific Salary Surveys
to over 300 current (and FREE) online salary surveys from trade publications
and associations. Information professionals should check out these most
relevant sections: Libraries, Education, Government, NonProfit, Computer
Salary Surveys Cost of Living
Links to online
calculators comparing local buying power from city to city.
Association Salary Survey
Summary data from
an SLA survey of special librarians and information personnel. The full
report is available for $54; $45 for SLA members.
Surveys and data
from the Association of Research Libraries covering university and non-university
research library positions.
Annual review of
starting salaries from Library Journal for new library school graduates.
Salary and Hiring Trends
Free salary reports
by industry or job function from the career Web site of the Wall Street
Journal. Includes a salary database from Salary Expert.com; search
by job title and location.
The following provides
only a few examples of useful print or online employer directories, essential
resources for compiling a list of potential employers. Because online directories
are created for a global audience making purchases online, few find location
important. As a job seeker it's up to you to know (or find out) which companies
lie within commuting distance of where you are or where you want to be.
When location is included, too often it is only to the company headquarters.
Local business directories rarely found online do pick up business
locations including offices, subsidiaries, divisions found in the area
of coverage. The best local business directories are on the shelf at your
nearest large public or academic library.
To get an idea
of some of the local online resources available, see JobStar's Researching
Companies section [http://jobstar.org/hidden/coinfo.cfm];
the focus is on California, so you'll have to apply the research suggestions
to locations in the other 49 states.
for Online Directories
Guide: Targeting and Researching
An excellent guide
to online employer research from Margaret Riley Dikel.
Business Web Sites
Selected by the
Rosenberg Corporate Research Center at Stanford University and arranged
in Print, edition 21. Gale: Farmington Hills, MI, 2001. ISBN: 0-7876-5314-4.
2 volumes, $425.
Index of 15,500
active rosters, guides, and other print and nonprint address lists. Check
your public library's list of available online electronic databases for
Gale's Ready Reference Shelf, which includes Directories in Print,
Directory of Special Libraries and Information Centers, and Encyclopedia
Index at Alameda County Library
at the Business Library at the Fremont (CA) Main Library index their collection
of directories appearing in monographs, periodicals, and pamphlets. International,
national, and local sources (CA ) are included. I use this free online
to identify local directories and get clues about related online sites.
Example: Directories, Subject = Music.
Vendor Company Reports
An overview of
the market and directory of vendors from ALA's TechSource.
Competitive Intelligence Professionals Job Marketplace
background on the competitive intelligence field, resources, and more.
Magazine's Guide to Current Companies to Watch
companies and product lines for major electronic publishers.
Directory of Information Brokers
Free online directory
of 1,000 U.S. and international "professional information intermediaries":
Search by location, expertise, and more.
of Independent Information Professionals Member Directory
Providers of "information-related
services as online and manual research, document delivery, database design,
library support, consulting, writing and publishing." Search by name, location,
type of services.
A collection of
library and information-related annual directories including American
Library Directory, American Book Trade Directory, AV Market
Place, and Library Resource Guide.
The Web site is
a free supplement to the print guide. Advertisers may pay to be listed
in the Web version. Request a free copy of the complete directory ($3.95
for postage and handling) by calling 1-800-300-9868.
Buyer's Guide and Web Site Directory
of the annual supplement to Library Journal and School Library
Journal: browse by company name, type of product/service, or search
Directory B2B > Information
Directory of commercial
databases, document delivery services, consulting organizations, library
services, information brokers, and more.
That Matter in Knowledge Management
annual feature also includes articles and upcoming events.
Servers via WWW
From Berkeley Digital
SunSite: links to 6,100 library Web sites from over 100 countries (academic,
public, special, consortia, and state libraries).
on the Web
scope and arranged by location.
Index to the Internet Library Topics
for academic, public, school, state libraries and more.
directory available to members.
The National Database of Nonprofit Organizations
directory of more than 850,000 IRS-recognized nonprofit organizations.
of Email Addresses of Publishers, Vendors, and Related Professional Associations,
Organizations, and Services.
Also includes links
to Web sites.
to search the database by company name, location, subject, etc. I made
a quick and easy list of all the publishers in Oakland and Berkeley for
a friend who wants work at a publishing Web site.
in Special Libraries Online
The "Buyer's Guide"
lists online and other suppliers; SLA members can search the Membership
Database by name, company, unit, or location.
of Real-Time Digital Reference Services
listing of libraries that offer real-time library reference or information
services using chat software, live interactive communications utilities,
call center management software, customer interaction management software,
Web contact center software, bulletin board services, interactive customer
assistance system, or related Internet technologies."
much of the career "heavy lifting" on the Web in terms of creating and
organizing profession or industry-specific resources. Most associations
offer a career guide and links to relevant sites. Some offer salary surveys,
job banks, or employment-related mailing lists. As associations develop
these portions of their Web services, they are seeing how valuable they
are: a real benefit to paying members. The trend has been for associations
to wall off these sections for "Members Only." Take the time to check out
the "Member Only" sections of the associations you belong to. Consider
joining other associations to have access to this valuable information.
Employment Sources in the Library and Information Professions
of specialized library associations and groups, state and regional library
associations offering employment information.
Reference > Libraries > Library and Information Science > Associations
There are 1,000
associations and 100 directories out there. Start looking here.
Associations Online Search Directory
Free database of
6,500+ online associations for the American Society of Association Executives:
Search by keyword, category, location.
Large public and
academic libraries may license this online version of the Encyclopedia
of Associations through their WebPac to library cardholders. Includes
entries for 158,000 associations international, national, state, and
local. Search by subject, SIC or keyword.
Let's say you're
at a conference and doing your best to mingle and strike up conversations
with strangers. One of my favorite conversational topics (after we've exhausted
the niceties) is, "What kind of electronic mailing lists do you subscribe
to? Which are your favorites? Why?" It's not unusual to discover that,
aside from professional interests, my conversational partner is also a
passionate left-handed badminton enthusiast or a collector of "Hello Kitty"
coffee pots. If chatting seems trivial to you, then think of it as "intentional
networking": creating '"egocentric" networks that arise from individuals
and their communication and workplace activity."10
How to network,
where to network, and how to behave online.
Interviewing, and Negotiating
Dikel's collection of how-to articles and online resources.
of Online Mailing Lists
Like Yahoo! for
online mailing lists.
Lists and Electronic Serials
Library Consortium maintained directory. Browse by title or subject; search
by keyword in various fields.
There are two ways
to use conferences in your job search. One is to attend, network, and make
use of any employment or hiring service. The other is to visit the conference
Web site and explore lists of speakers, attendees, and exhibitors at current
or past events. These lists can help you explore new job titles and spot
National and international
events listed to 2013.
Today, Inc. Calendar
Current and upcoming
events in the library and information fields.
IT events and conferences
and book-related conferences.
for job placement in conjunction with American Library Association's Midwinter
and Annual Conferences. "Conference Placement Services" is a free service
listing all open positions at the latest conference: Browse by state and
type of institution or search by keyword.
I'll admit that,
to me, recruiters are the tooth fairies of the job search world. If I only
had a dollar for every unemployed middle-level professional who thinks
that a recruiter will help them find their next job! And then another dollar
for every working middle-level professional who gets a call out of the
blue from a recruiter...lets the recruiter interview him about setting,
skills, salaries, technologies...and never hears from the recruiter again.
Well, if I had each of those dollars, at least I'd never have to
First, you must
remember that recruiters work for the employer and rarely find an unemployed
candidate attractive. After all, the recruiter has to "sell you" to an
employer for big bucks to make the 30 percent commission. Hard to do that
with an unemployed candidate. Use the sources below to learn more about
how this process works and to see if it might work for you.
How to Work
with a Recruiter
A nice collection
of articles about working with search firms from C. Berger and Company,
a Midwest recruiter of librarians and knowledge workers.
Ask the Headhunter:
Frequently Asked Questions
a working recruiter,gives no-nonsense advice on working with search firms.
Bottom line: Most recruiters don't take calls they find you.
Guide: Directories of Recruiters
Guide: Executive Search Firms
on free online directories of recruiters as well as fee-based directories.
Search Firm Survey
on the top 20 national executive search firms.
and ExecutiveSearch Firms
SLA directory of
temporary, permanent, and executive search agencies specializing in library-
and information-related placements.
Society of Competitive
Intelligence Professional's listing of recruiters who regularly search
for CI positions.
One of the little
maxims career folks say all the time is, "Resumes get you interviews, but
interviews get you jobs." Because the interview is where the hiring decision
is made, there's a tendency for job seekers to want the "right" answer
to each question. Big mistake on several counts. First, the interview is
the job seeker's chance to evaluate the company and the position firsthand.
So the questions asked by the job seeker and the job seeker's own impressions
of the company are equally as important. Second, nothing is more irritating
or self-defeating than a candidate who answers questions with "canned"
responses. As information professionals we are (or should be) skilled interviewers
ourselves! Treat the employment interview the same way you'd approach buying
a house. Learn all you can about the neighborhood, walk in with an idea
of the pluses and minuses, be prepared to learn and change your mind, see
the possibilities, get an outside opinion if necessary, and then move ahead
if it feels like a good investment. It helps to know in advance the kinds
of questions you might encounter. These resources will help you prepare.
The New Rules
of the Job Search Game: Why Today's Managers Hire...and Why They Don't.
Jackie Larson and Cheri Comstock. Bob Adams, Inc.: Holbrook, MA, 1994.
OOP. (Check your library's collection.)
This is my favorite
book on interviewing (alas now out of print) because it focuses on the
employer's perspective. Chapters 8 and 9 are wonderful "How to Survive
the Telephone Interview" and "How to Turn a 'No' into a 'Yes.'" If you
can't find the book, here's how it comes out: The best job interviews are
just like a great reference interview. The candidate has to listen, ask
questions, and discover the employer's real need and then show how s/he
can collaborate with the employer to address them.
Job Change Strategy. Donald Asher, Ten Speed Press: Berkeley, CA,
1993. OOP. (A few copies are available at $19.95 from the author, call
415/543-7130. Or check your library's collection.)
My second favorite
book on interviewing is also alas out of print. Asher describes an aggressive,
sales-based approach for use in the private sector that involves using
the telephone to get an interview, selling during the interview, and then
closing the deal. Even if you're not an aggressive sales type, you'll learn
some helpful tips!
Questions: A List of Tested Questions
Bloomington Libraries' list of common questions for an academic library
of links and articles on the job interview for the information professional.
Job Board Metasites
to Internet Job Searching, 2000-2003 Edition. Margaret Riley Dikel,
Frances E. Roehm. NTC/Contemporary Publishing: New York, NY, 2002. $14.95
pap. ISBN: 0071383107. 288 pages. Index.
An essential reference
for the information smart job seeker! Sites are well-chosen, annotated,
and organized by two great librarians. Job sites are sorted by sector/discipline
(business, social sciences, humanities, natural sciences, engineering,
government). Background information includes how to job search, create
an electronic resume, and network online. If your job target lies outside
the library world, use this guide to map out your new information universe.
Also visit The Riley Guide: Employment Opportunities and Job Resources
on the Internet [http://www.rileyguide.com/].
If you seek job
postings from organizations that routinely hire library and information
professionals, this is just about the only site you'll need to get started:
Employment Sources in the Library and Information Professions
Compiled by Darleena
Davis, American Library Assn., Spring 2001.
who hire librarians and related information types should look no further
than this wonderful list of where to announce job openings. Information
professionals looking for traditional job titles and settings will find
this their one-stop site for "The Invisible Job Market." Sections include
general sources of library and information jobs, library job hotlines,
specialized associations and groups with employment postings, state and
federal agencies and sources, library schools, even agencies hiring part-time
and temporary librarians.
Postings on the Internet
Compiled by Sarah
Nesbeitt, Booth Library, Eastern Illinois University
of national and international library-related job listing resources organized
by type of setting and/or location served. "Received job postings" section
lists individual job announcements sent to the site (15-25 entries per
Jobs for Librarians and Information Professionals
Rachel Singer Gordon,
Franklin Park Public Library, IL
job listings" from libraries and other employers of librarians (browse
by setting; search by keyword or state); "Jobs for Information Professionals
by State" job banks operated by state libraries and local associations
as well as links to individual library employment pages; "Job Banks for
Information Professionals outside the U.S." job exchange programs, non-U.S.
databases of library job postings; "PublicResume Bank" post or view librarian
resumes. Other Features: Free e-mail newsletter, Info Career Trends;
career advice articles on interviewing, salaries, and getting started as
Industry Job Listings
You'll see from
the comments below that job banks often fail to purge old job listings.
Use this flaw as a "design feature" and look at the OLD job listings as
well as the new. If you spot a great job or a great employer, visit the
employer's Web site. You might find a similar current opening that was
never posted to a third-party site or you might find other jobs of interest
to you. (All sites were evaluated April 3, 2002.)
Enterprise Content Management Association Job Bank
Job Titles: Sales,
imaging specialist, project manager, team leader, business analyst, training,
Comments: Out of
177 jobs listed, only 14 were posted within the last 14 days.
Cost: Free must
Competitive Information Professionals Job Openings
Job Titles: CI
analyst, business intelligence specialist, project manager, senior marketing
Pharmaceutical, financial sector, biotech, aviation, consulting firms
Job Titles: Training,
e-learning, instructional design
Healthcare, manufacturing, retailing, publishing
Comments: Out of
80 jobs listed, 11 were posted in the last 14 days.
Job Posting Service
Job Titles: Access
services department head, collection conservator, cataloging librarian,
science librarian, serials librarian
Academic libraries, large technology companies
new jobs only feature; closed positions are archived.
Association of Business Communicators Career and Job Postings
Job Titles: Communications
specialist, technical writer, financial analyst, account manager, sales
engineer, marketing communications coordinator
Electronics, PR agencies, Fortune 500, networks, marketing
Comments: Out of
125 jobs listed, 80 were posted in the last 14 days.
Cost: Became a
member-only service in June 2002.
of Records Management and Administrators Career Opportunities in Records
and Information Management
job listings divided into regions.
Job Titles: Records
manager, records analyst, archivist/librarian, document control, automation
analyst, imaging services manager
Archives, government, consulting firms, biotech/pharmaceutical, law firms
current jobs listed on a recent visit.
American Archivists Online Employment Bulletin
Job Titles: Archivist,
reference librarian archivist, imaging services manager, curator, collections
supervisor, county historian
Government, museums, associations, education
Comments: Out of
28 jobs listed, four were posted in the last 14 days.
Job Titles: Information
specialist, research analyst/consultant, Web information architect, chief
information officer, digital library Webmaster
Academic, government, private companies
job listings are not dated.
Job and Internship Openings
Job Titles: Researcher,
reference librarian, information specialist, fact checker, archivist, database
Comments: Six jobs
Dot Org Jobs:
The Online Employment Resource for the Non-Profit World
Job Titles: Issue
researcher, project manager, research analyst, curriculum developer, Intranet
Foundations, museums, nonprofits, education
job categories are most relevant: Research/Writing, Technology/Internet
A World of Non-Profit Opportunities
Job Titles: Executive
director, senior research associate, academic program coordinator, program
manager, grant writer
search and/or view jobs by state, organization type, date of posting.
in Library and Information Technology
Job Titles: Reference/Web
development librarian, technology and building supervisor, librarian
Internet services, integrated systems library manager
Academic, public libraries
Association Career Connection
Job Titles: Informationist,
image metadata specialist, law librarian, project manager, corporate librarian,
Academic libraries, law firms, government, private corporations
Comments: Out of
34 jobs listed, 22 were posted in the last 14 days.
Cost: Free to members
Serials Interest Group (NASIG) Job Listings
Job Titles: Serials
and acquisitions librarian, catalog librarian, technical services librarian,
coordinator for digital acquisition
Academic and public libraries, pharmaceuticals, science research
site compiles serials-related job announcements from the following
listservs: ACQNET, AUTOCAT, COLLIB-L, INNOPAC, LIBJOBS , LITA-L, PACS-L,
SERIALST, SLAJOB, STS-L.
of Research Libraries (ARL) Career Resources
Job Titles: Webmaster,
archivist, dean, cataloger, project manager, team manager, librarian, research
Out of 125 job listings, 15 were posted in the last 14 days.
Job Titles: Human
resources, trainer, compensation analyst, technical recruiter, consultant,
instructional design specialist
Banking, consulting, finance, associations, commercial
Job Titles: Most
relevant sections are Web/Info Design, Education/Teaching, Nonprofit Sector,
Everything from start-ups to Fortune 500 companies
San Francisco Bay Area community bulletin board has become a local employment
superstar. It has expanded to serve 12 other U.S. cities, one site in Canada,
and two in Australia.
Local Online Job Resources
is critical in the job search, spend some time finding and bookmarking
local job boards and resources. Here are some places to begin:
If you live
California Job Search Guide
Serves four regions
of California: Sacramento, San Francisco, Los Angeles, and San Diego. Lists
local job banks, online newspaper classifieds, career centers, libraries,
directories of employers, job hotlines, summer jobs, job fairs, and more.
If you live
links to local resources: Browse by region or state.
Government Job Resources
Links to city and
county home pages, online newspapers.
InfoNet organizes links to state employment services and local newspapers.
in the U.S. by State
from Job-Hunt.org links to local online job sites for each of the 50 states
trick for finding local employers in any area:
FlipDog, now owned
by Monster.com, spiders the Web looking for employment pages on company
Web sites kinda like a Google for jobs. Select your location, then type
of work, then type of employers (great feature: you can turn off the recruiter/agency
ads). Since employers don't enroll to be included, the spider just finds
them. Why apply through FlipDog? Visit the employer's Web site and see
all the listed jobs, then apply directly.
If you're searching for a private sector job, go to Monster.com (or similar
large job databank) and keyword search a specific term that might appear
in your target job title. For example, searching nationwide for the phrase
"knowledge manager" resulted in five very different job titles on the day
I visited: Manager, Global Knowledge Manager, Business Integration Manager,
Editor Knowledge Center Coordinator, Technical Product Manager, Vice
President of Human Resources, and Component Based Development Administrator.
Searching for the two words (no phrase) technical librarian gives me 33
results with titles such as Technology Analyst I, Tape Librarian, Photographer/Librarian/
Archivist, Document Control Librarian, Library Support VIII, and my favorite
Quality Engineer, Change Control.
It is an axiom of job searching that a job seeker can change job function
OR industry, but rarely both at the same time. This is because you'll need
to find transferable experience, skills, and accomplishments to make any
change. It's extremely difficult to translate both your job experience
and your industry experience in one move. So if you pick an adventurous
job target, stick close to your current industry. If you've been working
in medical libraries for 10 years and now want to be an indexer, it makes
sense to focus on some setting within the healthcare field as you make
the transition. If you're already an indexer for a medical publisher and
want to break into the consumer magazine field, try to make the leap as
an indexer, rather than as a Webmaster. You might pull off a change
in job title and industry remember that the employer may have no idea
where to look for the right candidate. But be advised that this maneuver
is the triple toe-loop of job hunting.
(if any location were possible)
LIKE the Dream Employer
Here's where your unfair advantage as an information professional really
pays off. While you'll find few free general company directories on the
Web, you may be able to locate online industry directories that will help
you create a list of local companies. For example, The Reel Directory,
online at http://www.reeldirectory.com/reel.html
or in print, lists San Francisco Bay Area production sources for film,
video, and multimedia from aerial coordinators to writers. A similar
source serving Southern California is LA 411, online at http://www.la411.com
or in print. Use any and all appropriate company or industry directories
at your disposal. Use commercial databases if you can do it on your own
dime (not billed to a current employer); otherwise, make use of local business
directories in the collections of large public and academic business libraries.
All the links in
this article were active on April 3, 2002. If you get the dreaded "Not
Found" error message when you visit, try these problem-solving tips:
Professionals' Map to Invisible
Job Market Resources
1. Employer doesn't
need information professionals.
These don't concern
us except insofar as they clutter up our searches.
2. Employer needs
information professionals, hires them all the time, and knows where to
find them "traditional" jobs.
site with a job title you'd recognize
boards information or library-related
local mailing lists
3. Employer needs
information professionals, hires them rarely, and doesn't know where to
find them "nontraditional" jobs
Whatever sources the
employer uses for most of their positions try a Web search like <
IBM AND employment > to see what KINDS of online sources this company uses
(e.g., its own Web site, a site like Monster, an industry job board?).
Employer's Web site
possibly with a nonstandard or generic job title like "information management
Maybe a big site they've
heard of like Monsters.com.
Web sites in their
major industry (health, government, marketing, etc.)
Mailing lists in their
Conferences in their
4. Employer needs
information professionals, but doesn't know they exist so the employer
is "just" trying to solve Problem X.
These employers tend
to look for the same skill set/professional identification they have worked
with in the past. Try looking for association job boards, classified and
mailing list in the setting (e.g., use engineering resources if you want
an information job with an engineering firm, healthcare resources for hospital
Employer's Web site
often with idiosyncratic job title (database service satisfaction engineer)
or with the assumption that only a computer science degree or an MBA could
tackle the problem.
among contractors and current employees, "Who could solve a problem like
Mailing lists asking
for ideas and help solving Problem X e.g., licensing, database building,
Posting a question
at sites they can determine are related to Problem X.
Information Industry Survival Guide," Mary Ellen Mort, Information Today,
Happened to Your Parachute?," Daniel Pink, Fast Company, September
McMurry, Blues Producer, Dies at 77," New York Times, March 29,
Library Vacation," Nick Corcodilos, Ask the Headhunter Web site
Job Sites Offer Easy Searches But Boards Produce Few Actual Hires," Kris
Maher and Rachel Emma Silverman, Wall Street Journal, January 2,
Monster(.com) That's Feasting on Newspapers," Saul Hansell, New York
Times, March 24, 2002.
Titles of the Future," Fast Company Web site
Give Booster Shots for Careers," Nancy Friedburg, written with Ellen Rapp,
York Times, October 31, 2001. [Available online to registered users
Not What You Know, It's Who You Know: Work in the Information Age," Bonnie
Nardi, Steve Whittaker, and Heinrich Schwarz, First Monday, vol. 5, no.
5 (May 2000) [http://firstmonday.org/issues/issue5_5/nardi/index.html].
Mort, MLS, is director of JobStar: Job Search Guide [http://jobstar.org],
a public library-sponsored Web site providing California and national job
search information to 22,000 visitors a day. Her address is firstname.lastname@example.org